Beginners Guide to Neural Networks and Deep Learning

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The human brain is integrated into a machine using deep learning, a subset of machine learning. It is a set of neural network algorithms that attempts to mimic the functioning of a human brain and learn from experiences since it is inspired by how a human brain works.

We will discover how a basic neural network functions, the types of neural networks in this post, as well as how it develops to produce the most accurate predictions.

A computer learning system called a neural network employs a network of functions to interpret and convert a data input in one form into the intended output, which is typically in another form. The biological makeup of humans and how their brain’s neurons work together to process input from their senses served as the basis for the idea behind artificial neural networks.

Simply said, neural networks are a collection of algorithms that attempt to identify patterns, correlations, and information from data using a method that is modeled after and operates similarly to biology and the human brain.

Components of neural networks:

  • Input layer
  • Hidden layer
  • Output layer

Deep Learning

Input layer: The inputs/information from the outside world are sometimes referred to as input nodes and are given to the model to learn from and draw conclusions from. The information is passed from input nodes to the hidden layer, the next layer.

Hidden Layer: All computations on the incoming data are done by a group of neurons called the hidden layer. A neural network might have countless hidden layers. A single hidden layer makes up the most basic network.

Output Layer: The model’s findings and output are derived from all the calculations in the output layer. In the output layer, there may be one or more nodes. When dealing with a multi-class classification problem, the output nodes can be more than 1, unlike when dealing with a binary classification problem.

Perception and Multi-layer Perception:

A simple type of neural network called a perceptron just has one layer, on which all the calculations are done.

Multi-layer Perception

In contrast, a multilayer perceptron, commonly referred to as an artificial neural network, is made up of many perceptions that are combined to form the network’s various layers.

network's various layers

In the above image. We have,

  • An input layer, with 6 input nodes
  • Hidden Layer 1, with 4 hidden nodes/4 perceptrons
  • Hidden layer 2, with 4 hidden nodes
  • Output layer with 1 output node

Deep Learning:

A part of machine learning, a division of artificial intelligence, serves as the foundation for deep learning. Deep learning is effective because neural networks replicate the human brain. Explicit programming is not used in deep learning. It is a machine learning class, essentially, that does feature extraction and transformation using a large number of nonlinear processing units. Each layer that follows the one before it accepts the output from the layer before it as input.

Deep learning models are quite useful in resolving the dimensionality issue since they are able to focus on the accurate features by themselves with just a little programming assistance. Particularly when there are many inputs and outputs, deep learning methods are used.

Since machine learning, a subset of artificial intelligence is where deep learning originated, and since the goal of artificial intelligence is to mimic human behaviour, so too is “the goal of deep learning to construct such algorithm that can mimic the brain.”

Neural networks are used to implement deep learning, and the biological neurons—basically, brain cells—serve as the inspiration for these networks.

So, in reality, deep networks—which are nothing more than neural networks with several hidden layers—help implement deep learning.

Types of Deep Learning Networks:

  1. Feed Forward Neural Networks
  2. Recurrent Neural Network
  3. Convolutional Neural Networks
  4. Restricted Boltzmann Machine
  5. Autoencoders

Feed Forward Neural Networks:

A feed-forward neural network, also known as an artificial neural network, prevents the formation of cycles between the nodes. All of the perceptrons in this type of neural network are arranged in layers, with the input layer receiving input and the output layer producing output. The term “hidden layers” refers to those levels that are not connected to the outside world. Each node in the layer below is connected to one of the perceptrons that are contained in that layer. The nodes are all completely connected, it can be said. There are no connections between the nodes on the same layer, either visible or invisible. The feed-forward network has no back-loops. The backpropagation technique can be used to update the weight values and reduce prediction error.

Applications:

  • Data Compression
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Computer Vision
  • Sonar Target Recognition
  • Speech Recognition
  • Handwritten Characters Recognition

Recurrent Neural Networks:

Another form of feed-forward network is a recurrent neural network. Each neuron in the buried layers is given an input here after a particular delay in time. The previous information from previous iterations is mostly accessed by the recurrent neural network. For instance, one needs to be familiar with the words that were used before in order to guess the next word in any sentence. In addition to processing the inputs, it also distributes the length and weights over time. It prevents the model’s size from growing as the size of the input increases. The only issue with this recurrent neural network is that it processes data slowly and does not take into account any incoming data for the present state. It struggles to recall previous facts.

Applications:

  • Machine Translation
  • Robot Control
  • Time Series Prediction
  • Speech Recognition
  • Speech Synthesis
  • Time Series Anomaly Detection
  • Rhythm Learning
  • Music Composition

Convolutional Neural Networks:

Convolutional neural networks are a particular type of neural network that is mostly used for object recognition, picture classification, and image clustering. The creation of hierarchical image representations is made possible by DNNs. Deep convolutional neural networks are recommended more than any other neural network to attain the best accuracy.

Applications:

  • Identify Faces, Street Signs, and Tumors.
  • Image Recognition.
  • Video Analysis.
  • NLP.
  • Anomaly Detection.
  • Drug Discovery.
  • Checkers Game.
  • Time Series Forecasting.

Restricted Boltzmann Machine:

Boltzmann machines have yet another variation in RBMs. Here, there are symmetric connections between the neurons in the input layer and the hidden layer. However, the corresponding layer does not have any internal associations. Boltzmann machines, however, do include internal connections within the hidden layer, in contrast to RBM. The model can train more effectively thanks to these limitations in BMs.

Applications:

  • Filtering.
  • Feature Learning.
  • Classification.
  • Risk Detection.
  • Business and Economic analysis.

Autoencoders:

Another type of unsupervised machine learning algorithm is an autoencoder neural network. Simply said, there are fewer hidden cells in this instance than input cells. However, the quantity of input cells equals the number of output cells. To force AEs to identify common patterns and generalize the data, an autoencoder network is trained to show the output similar to the fed input. The smaller representation of the input is typically handled by autoencoders. It aids in the decompression of data and the reconstruction of the original data. This algorithm just requires that the output match the input, making it relatively simple.

Applications:

  • Classification
  • Clustering
  • Feature Compression

Deep learning Applications

Self-driving cars: In self-driving cars, analyzing a vast quantity of data allows them to take in the visuals of their surroundings. They then decide whether to turn left, right, or halt. As a result, it will decide what steps to take to further reduce the incidents that occur each year.

Voice-controlled assistance: Siri is the first thing that comes to mind when we discuss voice control help. Siri will look for and present whatever you want it to do for you, so you can tell it to do anything.

Automatic Image Caption Generation: Whatever image you input, the algorithm will function so that it generates a caption in line with it. If you type “blue colored eye,” an image of a blue eye with a caption at the bottom will appear.

Automatic Machine Translation: We are able to translate between languages with the aid of automatic machine translation and deep learning.

Conclusion

With this we come to the end of this blog. We got a fair understanding of the concepts and may even be apply it to the real-world if given an opportunity. To deep-dive into Neural Networks and Deep Learning, it is important you follow the correct learning path and go step-by-step. Begin your learning journey today!

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